Given that Italy`s provision was one of the most important issues that required the attention of the new Council of Foreign Ministers; the three governments were particularly concerned about the conclusion of a peace agreement with it, especially since Italy was the first of the Axis powers to disserfy with Germany and to participate in allied operations against Japan. To remember the things that were discussed at each conference, use the Mnemonic PEER The Potsdam Conference is perhaps best known for President Truman`s conversation with Stalin on July 24, 1945, during which the President announced to the Soviet leader that the United States had successfully detonated the first atomic bomb on July 16, 1945. Historians have often interpreted Truman`s somewhat firm attitude during the negotiations to mean that the U.S. negotiating team believed that the U.S. nuclear capabilities would strengthen its bargaining power. Stalin, however, was already well informed about the American nuclear program thanks to the Soviet secret services; he stood his ground in his positions. This situation has made negotiations difficult. The leaders of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union, who had remained allies during the war despite their differences, never met collectively again to discuss cooperation in post-war reconstruction. The Potsdam conference took place from 17 July to 2 August 1945 at the Cecilienhof, the homeland of Crown Prince Wilhelm in Potsdam. Participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The leaders were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, then Clement Attlee and President Harry S. Truman. The heads of state and government decided that the Allied Control Council in Germany would address the issue, giving priority to the equal distribution of Germans between the zones of occupation. The representatives of the Supervisory Board should report to their governments and any zonal administration on the number of people already entering Germany from Eastern countries.  These representatives would also assess the future pace of transfers and focus on Germany`s absorption capacity. But what did this meeting mean for Germany? Although the Cecilienhof talks were largely designed to agree on appropriate punishment from the aggression nation, the conference also gave a glimmer of hope. Previous proposals to make germans slaves or a peasant nation were not on the agenda and the door to Germany`s return to the international community remained open. Especially since the United States quickly recognized the strategic importance of West Germany in the face of the expansion of the Soviet Union. In the five months since the Yalta conference, which has severely affected relations between leaders, there have been a number of changes. The Soviet Union occupied Central and Eastern Europe and the Red Army effectively controlled the Baltic States, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. Refugees have fled these countries.
Stalin had set up a communist puppet government in Poland, insisted that his control over Eastern Europe was a defence against possible future attacks and claimed that it was a legitimate sphere of Soviet influence.  On 8 May 1945, at the end of the European conflict of the Second World War, the Allies accepted the conditions of the German surrender. A new job for Harry Truman, the presidency, had been one long fight after another and he quickly called the White House the "Great White Prison." The United States focused on the Pacific when the Americans stormed the beaches of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
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